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Enrolled Population Summary

Explaining CHAMPS' Enrolled Population Summary


The CHAMPS Network aims to track the causes of under-five mortality and stillbirths at sites in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia through innovative, integrated and contextually appropriate epidemiologic, diagnostic, and community approaches. CHAMPS surveillance sites include: Baliakandi, Bangladesh; Kersa, EthiopiaKisumu and Siaya, Kenya; Bamako, MaliManhiça, Mozambique; Soweto, South Africa; and Makeni, Sierra Leone.


CHAMPS gathers information on all stillbirths and deaths in children <5 years that occur within a CHAMPS site. After a death or stillbirth occurs, the CHAMPS team is notified and contacts the family to obtain their consent to collect basic information, including the age of the child and the circumstances of the death. The following visualization highlights select indicators and metrics from CHAMPS implementation.



Despite reductions over the past two decades, childhood mortality remains high. This is particularly true in low- and middle-income settings in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Too often in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), people often die without having been seen by qualified medical personnel. The deceased are frequently buried or cremated without a documented medical history, and before an evaluation of the cause of death can be conducted. Therefore, many times these deaths are not captured through the official vital/medical registration systems. Credible and accurate mortality data would enable policy-makers and implementers to appropriately prioritize and effectively target the leading causes of childhood mortality with appropriate interventions. Such actions are critical in order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal of eliminating preventable childhood deaths.

The Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) network aims to track the causes of under-five mortality and stillbirths at sentinel sites in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia through innovative, integrated and contextually appropriate epidemiologic, diagnostic, and community approaches. CHAMPS employs Minimally Invasive Tissue Sampling (MITS), or post-mortem needle biopsies, to more closely study the causes of death. To this end, CHAMPS engages with community members using social behavioral science approaches to evaluate the feasibility and perceptions of these procedures while addressing community values, priorities, beliefs and practices.

CHAMPS surveillance sites include: Manhiça, Mozambique; Soweto, South Africa; Kisumu, Kenya; Bamako, Mali; Baliakandi, Bangladesh; Harar, Ethiopia; and Bombali, Sierra Leone. 


CHAMPS surveillance sites utilize notification systems which report all under-5 deaths and stillbirths to the local team within 24 hours of the child’s death. Site teams review each notification and contact family members of select cases to determine whether the case meets CHAMPS eligibility criteria (death at age <60 months or stillbirth; and residence in the defined geographic area).

If a case meets CHAMPS eligibility criteria, the team seeks informed consent from the parents or guardians to further investigate the cause of death through the post-mortem MITS procedure and laboratory investigations. The site teams also request consent to perform caregiver interviews, known as verbal autopsies, to explore the symptoms and conditions that may have led to the child’s death, and to collect any clinical records. Families are free to decide whether to take part in the procedures.

For those cases in which families granted consent and the MITS procedure has been performed, completing the tests and assembling the information requires 4 months. Then, an expert panel reviews all laboratory, clinical and verbal autopsy information on each case and assigns a final cause of death. This final cause of death is then provided to the family members.

The indicators and metrics presented here provide a basic understanding of the implementation of CHAMPS mortality surveillance.

Source of Data

This table is produced from cumulative data submitted on a weekly basis by CHAMPS surveillance sites to the CHAMPS Program Office (PO). Data are reviewed for consistency and quality by both the sites and the PO. However, because sites are continuously entering and transmitting data, more recent data may be missing or may not have completed data quality review. The start date of CHAMPS surveillance at each site, and the last date that each site transmitted data to the CHAMPS Program Office (PO), are noted in the table.

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