CHAMPS Literature Review

This page features publications that are relevant to CHAMPS' work to save child lives. To view publications that feature CHAMPS visit our News page, and for further resources developed by CHAMPS view our Protocols page

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United Nations Children's Fund, 2017

Levels and Trends in Child Mortality Report 2017

The world has made substantial progress in reducing child mortality in the past several decades. The total number of under-five deaths dropped to 5.6 (5.4, 6.0)1 million in 2016 from12.6 (12.4, 12.8) million in 1990 – 15,000 every day compared with 35,000 in 1990...

European Journal of Public Health, November 2017

Reducing child mortality from diarrhoeal diseases - How can we move forward?: Birger Forsberg

Since the inception of control of diarrhoeal diseases in childhood in 1980s jointly by WHO and UNICEF and subsequent roll-out of programmes and guidelines for such control in most Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), diarrhoea-related child mortality has fallen significantly. Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) or Recommended Home Fluids (RHF) along with increased fluid consumption and continued feeding have remained the main stay of treatment to prevent deaths from diarrhoea dehydration, with zinc added in more recent years...

Lancet Global Health, November 2017

Tackling antimicrobial resistance in neonatal sepsis

The reduction of maternal and child mortality, which has halved worldwide in the past two decades, is considered one of the greatest successes of the Millennium Development Goals programme. However, the number of neonatal deaths has remained unacceptably high, with an estimated 2·9 million deaths every year...

Lancet Global Health, November 2017

How Ethiopia achieved Millennium Development Goal 4 through multisectoral interventions: a Countdown to 2015 case study

3 years before the 2015 deadline, Ethiopia achieved Millennium Development Goal 4. The under-5 mortality decreased 69%, from 205 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 1990 to 64 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2013...

Lancet Global Health, November 2017

Modifiers of the effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on stillbirth, birth outcomes, and infant mortality: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from 17 randomised trials in low-income and middle-income countries

Micronutrient deficiencies are common among women in low-income and middle-income countries. Data from randomised trials suggest that maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation decreases the risk of low birthweight and potentially improves other infant health outcomes...

Lancet Global Health, November 2017

Quantification of the association between malaria in pregnancy and stillbirth: a systematic review and meta-analysis

2.6 million stillbirths occur annually worldwide. The association between malaria in pregnancy and stillbirth has yet to be comprehensively quantified. We aimed to quantify the association between malaria in pregnancy and stillbirth, and to assess the influence of malaria endemicity on the association...

PLOS One, October 2017

Maternal experience of intimate partner violence and low birth weight of children: A hospital-based study in Bangladesh

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of gender-based violence worldwide. IPV either before or during pregnancy has been documented as a risk factor for the health of the mother and her unborn child. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal experience of IPV and low birth weight (LBW)...

The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, October 2017

Death audit in the neonatal ICU of a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh: a retrospective chart review

Expectant reduction of neonatal mortality and formulation of preventive strategies can only be achieved by analysis of risk factors in a particular setting. This study aimed to document incidence of neonatal death and to analyze the risk factors associated with neonatal death...

Malaria Journal, October 2017

A systematic review and synthesis of the strengths and limitations of measuring malaria mortality through verbal autopsy

Lack of valid and reliable data on malaria deaths continues to be a problem that plagues the global health community. To address this gap, the verbal autopsy (VA) method was developed to ascertain cause of death at the population level...

The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, October 2017

Etiology and Risk Factors Determining Poor Outcome of Severe Pneumonia in Under–Five Children

To determine the etiology of severe pneumonia (pneumonia with chest indrawing) in under-five children, and to study the risk factors for poor outcomes viz., ‘treatment failure’, ‘need for change in antibiotics’, ‘prolonged hospital stay’, ‘need for mechanical ventilation’ and ‘mortality'...

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, October 2017

Reporting Deaths Among Children Aged <5 Years After the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic — Bombali District, Sierra Leone, 2015–2016

Inadequate vital events registration is common in low- and middle-income countries, including Sierra Leone. To estimate child mortality in the absence of reliable vital records, additional data sources are needed...

Journal or Community Genetics, October 2017

An overview of concepts and approaches used in estimating the burden of congenital disorders globally

Congenital disorders are an important cause of pregnancy loss, premature death and life-long disability. A range of interventions can greatly reduce their burden, but the absence of local epidemiological data on their prevalence and the impact of interventions impede policy and service development in many countries...

PLoS ONE, September 2017

Estimating global, regional and national rotavirus deaths in children aged <5 years: Current approaches, new analyses and proposed improvements

Rotavirus is a leading cause of diarrhoeal mortality in children but there is considerable disagreement about how many deaths occur each year. We compared CHERG, GBD and WHO/CDC estimates of age under 5 years (U5) rotavirus deaths at the global, regional and national level using a standard year (2013) and standard list of 186 countries...

Archives of Public Health, September 2017

A comprehensive analysis on child mortality and its determinants in Bangladesh using frailty models

Bangladesh has experienced a significant reduction of child mortality over the past decades which helped achieve the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target. But the mortality among under-5 aged children is still relatively high and it needs a substantial effort to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target and decelerate the current rate of under-5 mortality...

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, September 2017

Determinants of pre-eclampsia/Eclampsia among women attending delivery Services in Selected Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a case control study

Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder usually occurs after 20 weeks of gestation. It is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Ethiopia, the major direct obstetric complications including pre-eclampsia/eclampsia account for 85% of the maternal deaths...

Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, September 2017

Effect of gestational age on the epidemiology of late-onset sepsis in neonatal intensive care units - a review

Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Late-onset sepsis affects a significant percentage of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Most affected newborns are preterm or low birth weight, but late-onset sepsis also affects late preterm and term infants...

Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, September 2017

Mode of delivery and neonatal mortality among very low birthweight infants

The management of very low birth weight infants (VLBW) is still one of the greatest challenges in perinatal medicine. Our aim was to compare neonatal outcomes between VLBW infants born by Caesarean section and by vaginal delivery...

Lancet, September 2017

Mapping under-5 and neonatal mortality in Africa, 2000–15: a baseline analysis for the Sustainable Development Goals

During the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, many countries in Africa achieved marked reductions in under-5 and neonatal mortality. Yet the pace of progress toward these goals substantially varied at the national level, demonstrating an essential need for tracking even more local trends in child mortality...

Lancet, September 2017

Changes in cause-specific neonatal and 1–59-month child mortality in India from 2000 to 2015: a nationally representative survey

Documentation of the demographic and geographical details of changes in cause-specific neonatal (younger than 1 month) and 1–59-month mortality in India can guide further progress in reduction of child mortality...


Pediatrics, September 2017

Partnerships for Global Child Health

Child mortality remains a global health challenge and has resulted in demand for expanding the global child health (GCH) workforce over the last 3 decades.Institutional partnerships are the cornerstone of sustainable education...

Health and Place, September 2017

Spatial variations and determinants of infant and under-five mortality in Bangladesh

Reducing child mortality is a Sustainable Development Goal yet to be achieved by many low-income countries. We applied a subnational and spatial approach based on publicly available datasets and identified permanent insolvency, urbanicity, and malaria endemicity as factors associated with child mortality...

Lancet, September 2017

Classification of maternal deaths: where does the chain of events start?

In several countries, confidential enquiry into maternal deaths, combined with rigorous classification, has become a valued method to improve the quality of maternity care. The death of Mrs X (panel) is a case of maternal mortality—ie, “the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy...


BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, September 2017

Institutional maternal and perinatal deaths: a review of 40 low and middle income countries

Understanding the magnitude and clinical causes of maternal and perinatal mortality are basic requirements for positive change. Facility-based information offers a contextualized resource for clinical and organizational quality improvement. We describe the magnitude of institutional maternal mortality, causes of death and cause-specific case fatality rates, as well as stillbirth and pre-discharge neonatal death rates...

Lancet, September 2017

Global, regional, and national disease burden estimates of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children in 2015: a systematic review and modelling study

We have previously estimated that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was associated with 22% of all episodes of (severe) acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) resulting in 55,000 to 199,000 deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2005. In the past 5 years, major research activity on RSV has yielded substantial new data from developing countries...


Expert Review of Vaccines, August 2017

Estimated reductions in hospitalizations and deaths from childhood diarrhea following implementation of rotavirus vaccination in Africa

Rotavirus is the leading cause of hospitalizations and deaths from diarrhea. 33 African countries had introduced rotavirus vaccines by 2016. We estimate reductions in rotavirus hospitalizations and deaths for countries using rotavirus vaccination in national immunization programs and the potential of vaccine introduction across the continent...

International Journal of Public Health Research, August 2017

Mortality in Children Under 5: Prevalence of Congenital Malformations and its Associated Demographic Variables

Congenital malformations (CM) comprise a wide range of abnormalities of body structure or function that are present at birth and are of prenatal origin. It has contributed to a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to determine the extent and investigate the relationship between CM and its associated demographic variables...

PLoS Med, August 2017

Identification of factors associated with stillbirth in the Indian state of Bihar using verbal autopsy: A population-based study

India was estimated to have the largest numbers of stillbirths globally in 2015, and the Indian government has adopted a target of <10 stillbirths per 1,000 births by 2030 through the India Newborn Action Plan (INAP). The objective of this study was to use verbal autopsy interviews to examine factors associated with stillbirth in the Indian state of Bihar and make recommendations for the INAP to better inform the setting of priorities and actions to reduce stillbirths...

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, August 2017

The Effects of Malnutrition and Diarrhea Type on the Accuracy of Clinical Signs of Dehydration in Children under Five: A Prospective Cohort Study in Bangladesh

Acute diarrhea and malnutrition remain significant burdens of disease for children under five and disproportionately affect children living in low- and middle-income countries. Children under five have an estimated 2.9 episodes of diarrhea every year or nearly 1.7 billion episodes of diarrhea in 2010, with the highest burden of disease in Africa and southeast Asia...


Bangladesh Journal of Child Health, 2017

Perinatal Characteristics and Outcome of Neonates at NICU of a Tertiary Level Hospital in Bangladesh

One of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG4) is to reduce child mortality up to two-thirds by 2015. In most developing countries, a higher proportion of neonatal deaths are observed. It has been recognized that without a substantial reduction in neonatal deaths, MDG-4 will not be met...

Lancet Infectious Disease, June 2017

An update of the global burden of pertussis in children younger than 5 years: a modelling study

Since the publication in 2003 of a model to estimate the disease burden of pertussis, new evidence of the protective effect of incomplete pertussis vaccination against severe pertussis has been reported. We revised the model to provide new estimates of regional and global pertussis cases and deaths for children younger than 5 years...

Clinical Infectious Diseases, May 2017

Efficacy of Maternal Influenza Vaccination Against All- Cause Lower Respiratory Tract Infection Hospitalizations in Young Infants: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial

Influenza immunization of pregnant women protects their young infants against laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. Influenza infection might predispose to subsequent bacterial infections that cause severe pneumonia...